What is an evaluation system? And What Is Formative & Summative Evaluation ?
An evaluation system consists of a group of individuals who work together on a regular basis to provide evaluation and feedback to a population of physicians-in-training. This definition is adapted from a high functioning clinical microsystem. In an effective evaluation system, evaluators share common educational aims and outcomes, share linked processes and information about resident performance, and produce a physician truly competent to enter independent medical practice or fellowship at the end of training. The evaluation system has a structure (faculty and resources) to carry out processes (teaching, evaluation, and feedback) to produce an outcome (a competent physician at the end of residency). This system must provide both summative and formative evaluation for trainees and, at a minimum, summative evaluation for the profession and public. Check for Educational Evaluations in US at UT Evaluators
Summative evaluation refers to the final judgment of competence and performance at the end of an educational activity, such as the end of internship or even the end of a specific rotation. Formative evaluation is the judgments made during an educational activity. What are the essential elements of evaluation? First, evaluation must represent a composite and comprehensive view of a trainee’s competence. No single evaluation method will be sufficient, including the common “global” faculty evaluation forms. Second, the evaluation should include self-assessment and must stimulate reflection on the part of the trainee. Self-assessment and reflection is a necessary skill for lifelong learning; as many have noted, residency training at a minimum should make an individual ready for practice, but it cannot make residents fully “practice ready.” Much learning will occur after formal training, and the evaluation of this new knowledge will be performed independently by the physician, stimulated by practice needs and reflection. Third, the evaluation system must be feasible to execute and maintain.
However, rigor and quality must not be sacrificed solely to improve feasibility. Effective evaluation requires faculty skill and hard work. If graduate medical education is to truly embrace accountability and professionalism, substantial work in faculty development is needed to improve summative evaluations For example, the public expects and takes for granted the demonstration of a high level of competence (proficiency) in airline pilots; the medical community must strive for no less. Every physician graduating from residency and fellowship training programs should have documented rigorous evidence that they are truly ready to enter independent practice. The employment of multiple evaluation tools—as described below—provides the mechanism for creating a more rigorous evaluation process. Educational Evaluations in US visit here
Formative evaluation is equally important. Formative evaluation places greater emphasis on descriptive evaluation and is critically important to facilitate high quality, meaningful feedback for the resident. This specificity and detail is essential to help the trainee identify both strengths and weaknesses and to learn the skill of reflective practice. Trainees find that receiving evaluation only by scores and numbers is insufficient and frustrating. Formative evaluation should be embedded into everyday activities, such as patient admissions and work rounds, morning report, and even conferences.